LM324 op amp IC is just like a comparator circuit, where both inputs are compared, and depending upon which input is higher, it gives the output. When we look at the internal schematic of the LM324 op amp IC, there are four operational amplifiers. These op-amps in LM324 IC connect in such a way that it resembles a comparator circuit. We can connect the LM324 op amp with a single power supply because the design is in such a way that it takes lower power during operation. On the same power supply, the LM324 op amp remains stable.
Voltage ranges for the LM 324 op amp are in the ranges of 3 volts to 32 volts, which are overall good voltage ranges for operation. In most of the applications, a common mode with a negative power supply is used, which mainly reduces the requirement for external biasing of this op-amp IC. This is how output also depends on the negative input supply. Now, let’s have a look at LM 324 op amp circuit pins configuration.
Pins Configuration of LM324 Op Amp
As we see in the above figure, we can describe the pin configuration of the LM324 op amp. The function of each pin has been separately described.
Pin1 is the OUTPUT1 ==> Output of the first comparator Circuit
Pin2 is the -ve INPUT1 ==>Inverting input of the 1st comparator
Pin3 is the +ve INPUT1 ==> non-Inverting input of the 1st comparator
Pin4 is the +VCC ==> Positive Voltage Supply
Pin5 is the +ve INPUT1 ==> non-Inverting input of the 2nd comparator
Pin6 is the -ve INPUT1 ==> Inverting input of the 2nd comparator
Pin7 is the OUTPUT2 ==> Output of the second comparator Circuit
Pin8 is the OUTPUT3 ==> Output of the third comparator Circuit
Pin9 is the -ve INPUT1 ==> Inverting input of the 3rd comparator
Pin10 is the +ve INPUT1 ==> non-Inverting input of the 3rd comparator
Pin11 is the GND, -VCC ==> Ground or negative voltage supply
Pin12 is the +ve INPUT1 ==> non-Inverting input of the 4th comparator
Pin13 is the -ve INPUT1 ==> Inverting input of the 4th comparator
Pin14 is the OUTPUT4 ==> Output of the fourth comparator Circuit
LM324 op amps can also run from dual power supplies. These dual power supplies can range from ±1.5V to ±16V for a specific number of applications. This is an extra feature in addition to single supply operation. The outputs of LM324 IC have a good drive capability and can source up to 20 milli amps. The sinking capability is around 40 milli amps.
Ratings of LM324 op amp
The ratings include the power requirements for the LM324 op amps.
Supply voltages of LM324 are ==> 32 Volts
Power consumption for LM324 op amp is around ==>1130 milli Watts
The differential input voltages of this IC ==> 32 v
The input current for LM324 is around ==> 50 milli amperes
The applied input voltage on LM324 op amps can range ==> -0.3 to 32 V
The storage temp. ranges ==> -65 to 150 degrees Celsius
Independence in terms of dual supply requirements
DC Voltage gain is higher ==> 100 dB
Frequency compensation inside LM324 for unity gain
Larger bandwidth around 1 MHz
Input Voltage Range around 3volts to 32 volts
The sinking capability is around 40 milli amps.
LM324 source up to 20 milli amps
Applications of LM324 op amp
LM324 op amps we use in comparator circuits and amplifier circuits.
The signals from LM324 op amps are typically buffered or amplified. They are applicable active filters and voltage-controlled oscillators. (VCOs).
Substitute of LM324
We can use MC33078 and LM837 in place of LM324. If these not available then we can also replace it with TL074 or LF347 in the circuit.
From the above discussion, we can conclude that LM324 op amps are a good choice in any circuit of the above types. Want to know more about operational amplifiers and their types or categories, feel free to visit this article to get the basic information.
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